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1- Bitcoin : History .

Bitcoin (abbreviation: BTC; sign: ₿) is a decentralized digital currency that can be transferred on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network.[7] Bitcoin transactions are verified by network nodes through cryptography and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain. The cryptocurrency was invented in 2008 by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto.[10] The currency began use in 2009,[11] when its implementation was released as open-source software.[6]: ch. 1  The word bitcoin was defined in a white paper published on 31 October 2008.[4][12] It is a compound of the words bit and coin.[13] The legality of bitcoin varies by region. Nine countries have fully banned bitcoin use, while a further fifteen have implicitly banned it. A few governments have used bitcoin in some capacity. El Salvador has adopted Bitcoin as legal tender, although use by merchants remains low. Ukraine has accepted cryptocurrency donations to fund the resistance to the 2022 Russian invasion. Iran has used bitcoin to bypass sanctions. Bitcoin has been described as an economic bubble by at least eight recipients of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.[14] The environmental impact of bitcoin is significant. Its proof-of-work algorithm for bitcoin mining is designed to be computationally difficult, which requires the consumption of increasing quantities of electricity, the generation of which has contributed to climate change.[15][16] According to the University of Cambridge, bitcoin has emitted an estimated 200 million tonnes of carbon dioxide since its launch.[17]

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